During the Civil War, the 16th Texas Volunteer Infantry was organized into 10 companies at
“Camp Groce” near Hempstead, Austin County, on March 25, 1862. It was surrendered by General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department on May 26, 1865. Comapny “A” consisted of 75 men. The officers were Xenophon B. Saunders (Captain), J.M. White (1st Lt.), Ishmael Kile (2nd. Lt. Sr.), J.F. Estes (2nd Lt), and D.A. Chamberlin (Orderly Sgt.).
Private Joseph P. Blessington’s description of Camp Groce: “Camp Groce–named in honor of Colonel L.W. Groce, the owner of the land–is situated on a rising ground alongside of the Central Railroad, between three and four miles from the town of Hempstead in Austin County.”
Regimental Field and Staff
Lt. Colonel-James E. Shephard
Major-William H. Redwood
Asst. Surgeon-S. Ewing
Milliken’s Bend, June 7, 1863
Red River Campaign, March-May 1864
Camden Expedition, March-May 1864
Mansfield, April 8, 1864
Pleasant Hill, April 9, 1864
Jenkins’ Ferry, April 30, 1864
March 25, 1862
The 16th Texas Volunteer Infantry Regiment is organized at Camp Groce near Hempstead, in Austin County.
May 16, 1862
Camp breaks up. Regiment boards up railroad cars bound for Virginia Point.
May 17, 1862
Regiment arrives at Virginia Point and camps there without activity until July 7, 1862.
June 3, 1862
Colonel George Flournoy is assigned to the immediate command of the Sub-Military District of Houston, and will for the present establish his headquarters at Houston.–Special Orders No. 819 from Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-General Samuel Boyer Davis.
July 6, 1862
Regiment is ordered to march to Little Rock, Arkansas
July 7, 1862
Regiment returns to Camp Groce and prepares for march to Little Rock.
August 2, 1862
“Early this morning, the regiment took up their line of march for Little Rock, Arkansas….After marching five miles, we struck camp, selected for us by our quartermaster.”–J.P. Blessington
September 1862-January 1863
Regiment attached to Flournoy’s Brigade, Nelson’s-McCulloch’s Division, 2nd Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department
October 14, 1862
Regiment takes up winter quarters at Camp Nelson near Little Rock. While at winter quarters, the formation of McCulloch’s Division occurs. It is headed by Brigadier General Henry E. McCulloch. The 16th is assigned to the 3rd Brigade commanded by Col. George Flournoy…Lt. Col. James Shephard takes interim command of the regiment.
December 10, 1862
McCulloch’s Division ordered to prepare to march to Vicksburg by Major General Holmes. (They never went.)
December 26, 1862
Major General John G. Walker assumes command of the division from McCulloch. McCulloch takes over the 3rd Brigade from Flournoy. Flournoy re-assumes command of the 16th. Walker’s division order to move, without delay, to Pine Bluff by Major General Holmes in Special Order No. 121.
Regiment attached to McCulloch’s-Flournoy’s Brigade, McCulloch’s-Walker’s Division, District of Arkansas, Trans-Mississippi Department
April 23, 1863
McCulloch’s Division order to Monroe, Louisiana and to report to the commanding officer, Lt. General E.K. Smith.
May 1863-April 1864
Regiment attached to Flournoy’s-Scurry’s Brigade, Walker’s Division, District of West Louisiana, Trans-Mississippi Department
May 31, 1863
Skirmish at Perkin’s Landing Letter from Brig. General Henry E. McCulloch to Major R.P. McClay, Assistant-Adjutant and Inspector General: “Major Redwood, who was placed in charge of the skirmishers (aided by Captain Flowers, quartermaster of Colonel Flournoy’s regiment, his adjutant), managed them with ability and courage which showed him fit for the duty to which he had been assigned while the officers and the men under his command behaved in the most commendable manner.”
June 7, 1863
Battle of Milliken’s Bend Description of battle of Milliken’s Bend: The regiment began the battle on the right flank. As the regiment was about to climb a levee and go over the top, it was ordered by McCulloch to double-quick to the left of the brigade. Colonel Flournoy argued with McCulloch’s adjutant about the order, but the adjutant responded that the Brigadier General’s orders were strict. One of the regiment’s companies captured six federals who were lying in ambush. A regiment musician, having been captured by a federal black regiment, tricked his captors and led them back to the rebel line where they in turn were all taken prisoner without a single shot fired.
October 21, 1863
While the division is camped at Moundville, Louisiana, the 16th is ordered to assist General Green’s forces and to relieve the 13th infantry which was on picket below Opelousas.
October 22, 1863
The enemy advanced on Opelousas, driving the 16th and Green’s Cavalry. Upon returning to camp at Moundville, the 16th reported that the enemy took possession of Opelousas at about 10 A.M. and was advancing on Washington (Louisiana.)
December 1, 1863
March to Plaquemine
December 3, 1863
The regiment participates in firing on the federal steamer Van Pool on the Mississippi River.
December 13, 1863
Encamped at Bayou De Glaize, about two-and-a-half miles north of Simmsport.
March 11, 1864
Scurry’s Brigade took its position at “Fort Humbug.”
April 2, 1864
Arrived at Pleasant Hill, Louisiana
April 3-April 7, 1864
Camped near a saw-mill about halfway between Mansfield, Louisiana and Pleasant Hill
April 8, 1864
Battle of Mansfield (Confederate victory)
April 9, 1864
Battle of Pleasant Hill (Confederate victory)
April 10, 1864
Regiment receives orders to march to Camden, Arkansas where the Federals had 8,000 troops under General Steele.
April 20, 1864
Camped at Walnut Creek
April 26, 1864
Camped within 12 miles of Camden
April 27, 1864
General Steele abandons Camden and heads for Little Rock…Regiment arrives at Camden at 4 P.M.
April 30, 1864
Battle of Jenkins’ Ferry. Brigadier Generals Scurry and Randall of Walker’s Division both die from wounds received during the battle.
May 12, 1864
Colonel R. Waterhouse promoted to Brigadier General. He assumes command of the 3rd Brigade to which the 16th is currently attached.
September 3, 1864
Major General John H. Forney takes command of the division
October 28, 1864
Camped near Minden, Arkansas until December 1, 1864
December 1, 1864
Moved to more solid ground and winter quarters four miles away and called it “Camp Magruder”
December 12, 1864
Men receive two months’ pay. They were given the option of $22 cash, or no cash and their money would be put in bonds at an annual percentage rate of eight percent. The majority of the men took the cash and spent the next few nights playing cards and going into town.
January 26, 1865
Left Camp Magruder under orders to march to Shreveport, Louisiana
February 21, 1865
Camped near the Old Mansfield road until March 6, 1865. At this camp, the regiment was re-assigned to the new 4th Brigade. The new brigade was composed of the 18th Texas Infantry, the 28th Texas Dismounted Cavalry, the 34th Texas Dismounted Cavalry, and Wall’s Texas Dismounted Cavalry. The Brigade was commanded by Brig. General W.H. King. General Smith said the reason for dismounting the three cavalry units was because of the lack of fodder for the animals and the lack of animals.
March 5, 1865
Major General Forney receives orders from General Smith for his division to proceed to Hempstead, Texas.
March 6, 1865
Regiment takes up march for home
April 15, 1865
Regiment arrives at Camp Groce and stays there until surrender of troops and its discharge from the Army of the Confederate States of America.
May 19-20, 1865
Troops discharged from CSA Army
May 26, 1865
Official surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department by General Edmund Kirby Smith in Galveston, Texas.
Bibliography 1. Blessington, Joseph P., The Campaigns of Walker’s Texas Division by a Private Soldier, Lange, Little & Co., New York, NY, 1875. 2. Sifakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies: Texas, Facts on File, New York, NY, 1995. 3. United States Government, The War of the Rebellion, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 9, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1883.
Original Journal by: Christian A. Pena
FLOURNOY, GEORGE M. (1832-1889). George M. Flournoy, state official and Confederate officer, was born in Louisville, Georgia, on November 30, 1832, the son of Marcus A. and Margaret (Shelman) Flournoy. He attended the University of Georgia and graduated from law school at Tuskegee, Alabama, in 1853. He and his bride, Eugenia (Haralson), moved to Austin, Texas, the following year, and Flournoy opened a law practice there. After Eugenia died, Flournoy married Virginia L. Holman in 1858.